- IANA name:
- Hex code:
- 0x00, 0x17
- TLS Version(s):
- TLS1.0, TLS1.1, TLS1.2, TLS1.3
- Export-grade Transport Layer Security (TLS EXPORT)
- Key Exchange:
- Diffie-Hellman (DH)
- Anonymous (anon)
- Rivest Cipher 4 with 40bit key (RC4 40)
- HMAC Message Digest 5 (MD5)
- Included in RFC:
Export ciphers used to be legally exportable from the United States of America in the 1990s, when exporting military technology was heavily restricted. Nowadays, they are considered insecure (see freakattack.com).
This key exchange algorithm does not support Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) which is recommended, so attackers cannot decrypt the complete communication stream.
The so-called Raccoon Attack affects the specifications of TLS 1.2 and below when using a DH(E) key exchange. According to the researchers, while very hard to exploit, in rare circumstances this timing attack allows attackers to decrypt the connection between users and the server. A fix has been introduced in the TLS 1.3 specification.
Anonymous key exchanges are generally vulnerable to Man in the Middle attacks.
IETF has officially prohibited RC4 for use in TLS in RFC 7465. Therefore, it can be considered insecure.
The Message Digest 5 algorithm suffers form multiple vulnerabilities and is considered insecure.